The Post Correspondence Problem (PCP) is a classic problem in computer science that falls under the realm of computational complexity theory. It was introduced by Emil Post in 1946 and has since been extensively studied due to its significance in the field of decidability.

The PCP involves finding a solution to a specific instance of a problem, known as the PCP instance. This instance consists of a finite set of dominoes, where each domino has a top and bottom string. The objective is to arrange a sequence of dominoes such that concatenating the top strings yields the same result as concatenating the corresponding bottom strings.

To illustrate the PCP, let's consider the following example:

Domino 1: (ab, a)

Domino 2: (b, ab)

Domino 3: (ba, b)

In this example, we have three dominoes with their respective top and bottom strings. The objective is to find a sequence of these dominoes that results in the same concatenation of top strings as the concatenation of bottom strings.

We can attempt to solve this example by choosing the first domino (Domino 1) and then the second domino (Domino 2), resulting in the sequence: (ab, a) -> (b, ab). Concatenating the top strings yields "aba," and concatenating the bottom strings also yields "aba." Hence, a solution exists for this instance of the PCP.

To determine if a solution exists for a given PCP instance, we can use an algorithm that systematically explores all possible combinations of dominoes. However, due to the nature of the problem, the PCP is undecidable, meaning that there is no algorithm that can solve all instances of the problem.

Alan Turing proved the undecidability of the PCP in 1936 by reducing the halting problem to it. This result implies that there is no general algorithm that can determine whether a solution exists for any given PCP instance.

The Post Correspondence Problem is a fundamental problem in computational complexity theory. It involves finding a sequence of dominoes that yields the same concatenation of top strings as the concatenation of bottom strings. While it is possible to find solutions for specific instances, the problem as a whole is undecidable, meaning that there is no general algorithm to determine if a solution exists for any given instance.

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